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Mental health is defined as the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional well-being of an individual. How people feel, behave and think, handle stress and relate with others and the choices they make determine their mental health. Economic, social, biological, and medical circumstances can render one mentally ill.

Now, let us look at the types of mental health disorders…

Clinical depression in mental health

Also called major depression, this health disorder is characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life. Possible causes of this disorder include a combination of psychological, biological, and social sources of distress. Research suggests that these causes may result in changes in brain function, including the altered activity of certain neural circuits in the brain.

Anxiety disorder

This is characterized by feelings of worry, anxiety, or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one’s daily activities. They are commonly experienced as panic attacks, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Bipolar disorder

This is also termed manic depression. A disorder associated with mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs. The exact cause of bipolar disorder is not known, however, it is a combination of genetics, environment, and altered brain structure and chemistry.


Dementia is a group of conditions, including thinking and social symptoms, characterized by impairment of at least two brain functions, such as memory loss and lack of judgment of people, places, and things.

Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A chronic condition characterized by attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. ADHD often begins in childhood and can transverse into adulthood. It may result in low self-esteem, troubled relationships, and difficulty in concentrating on school or work.


A disorder that affects a person’s ability to think, feel and behave clearly. The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, but it is suggested by experts that a combination of genetics, environment, and altered brain functions, structure, and chemistry may play a role.


A serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact. Autism, also called autism spectrum disorder, affects the nervous system.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A disorder characterized by failure to recover from an experience. This condition may last for weeks, months, or even years in severe cases; with triggers that can cause the individual to relive the trauma, accompanied by intense emotional and physical reactions.

Causes of mental health

Factors such as these below can lead to mental illness, some curable and some not, and can be for a lifetime. You can treat most mental disorders or illnesses, or their impact reduced through medication and therapy.

  • Childhood abuse, trauma, and/or neglect
  • Discrimination or stigma
  • Physical abuse
  • Loneliness
  • Sexual abuse
  • Severe stress

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